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Chlorothiazide information from DrugsUpdate  

See Available Brands of Chlorothiazide in India

P - Caution when used during Pregnancy.
L - Caution when used during Lactation.

Chlorothiazide sodium is a diuretic used within the hospital setting or for personal use to manage excess fluid associated with congestive heart failure. It is also used as an antihypertensive.

Pharmacodynamics

Chlorothiazide reduces the reabsorption of electrolytes from the renal tubules, hence increasing the excretion of sodium and chloride ions and consequently of water. It also reduces the glomerular filtration rate.

Pharmacokinetics

Absorption: Incompletely and variably absorbed from the GI tract.

Distribution: Crosses placenta and small amounts are reported to be distributed into breast milk.

Excretion: Plasma half-life: about 45-120 min. Excreted unchanged in the urine.

Chlorothiazide Indications / Chlorothiazide Uses

Orally used in the treatment of hypertension and oedema.

Chlorothiazide Adverse Reactions / Chlorothiazide Side Effects

Electrolyte imbalance; hyperglycaemia; gout; dry mouth; thirst; weakness; muscle pain and cramp; seizures; hypotension; GI disturbances; anorexia; sialadenitis; headache; impotence; yellow vision; hypersensitivity reactions; cholestatic jaundice; pancreatitis; blood dyscrasias; glycosuria; dizziness; photosensitivity reactions, postural hypotension, paraesthesia.

Precautions

Information Not Available.

Special Precautions

Fluid and electrolyte disturbances; hepatic cirrhosis; gout; DM. Elderly; severe heart failure; renal or hepatic impairment. When administered IV, ensure that extravasation does not occur. Monitor blood glucose concentrations in patients taking antidiabetics. Pregnancy and lactation.

Other Drug Interactions

Digitalis glycosides; drugs that prolong QT interval; other antihypertensives; competitive muscle relaxants; pressor amines; corticosteroids, corticotrophin; β2-agonists, α-blockers; ACE inhibitors; NSAIDs; alcohol, barbiturates; opioids; lithium; allopurinol; tetracyclines; carbenoxolone; hypoglycaemics.

Dosage

Oral

Hypertension

Adult: 250-500 mg daily as single or divided dose. Up to 1 g daily. May be given via IV admin using the sodium salt. 

Child: Up to 25 mg/kg daily in 2 divided doses. Infants up to 6 mth: Up to 35 mg/kg daily in 2 divided doses.

Oral

Oedema

Adult: 0.25-1 g once daily or bid, may also be taken on alternate days or on 3-5 days wkly. Max: 2 g/day. May be given via IV admin using the sodium salt.

Food(before/after)

Should be taken with food.

List of Contraindications

Chlorothiazide and Pregnancy

Category C: Either studies in animals have revealed adverse effects on the foetus (teratogenic or embryocidal or other) and there are no controlled studies in women or studies in women and animals are not available. Drugs should be given only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the foetus.


Category D: There is positive evidence of human foetal risk, but the benefits from use in pregnant women may be acceptable despite the risk (e.g., if the drug is needed in a life-threatening situation or for a serious disease for which safer drugs cannot be used or are ineffective).

Chlorothiazide and Other Contraindications

Severe hepatic or renal impairment; anuria; Addison's disease; hypercalcaemia.

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