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Neomycin information from DrugsUpdate  

See Available Brands of Neomycin in India

P - Caution when used during pregnancy
L - Caution when used during lactation

Neomycin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic that is found in many topical medications such as creams, ointments, and eyedrops.

Pharmacodynamics

Pharmacokinetics

Information Not Available

Neomycin Indications / Neomycin Uses

Information Not Available

Neomycin Adverse Reactions / Neomycin Side Effects

Oral: Nausea, diarrhoea, vomiting, irritation or sorenessof the mouth or rectal area; dyspnoea, eosinophilia, nephrotoxicity, neurotoxicity, ototoxicity (auditory and vestibular)
Topical: Contact dermatitis. Neuromuscular blockade and respiratory paralysis.

Precautions

WARNINGS: SYSTEMIC ABSORPTION OF NEOMYCIN OCCURS FOLLOWING ORAL ADMINISTRATION AND TOXIC REACTIONS MAY OCCUR. Patients treated with neomycin should be under close clinical observation because of the potential toxicity associated with their use. NEUROTOXICITY (INCLUDING OTOTOXICITY) AND NEPHROTOXICITY FOLLOWING THE ORAL USE OF Neomycin Sulfate HAVE BEEN REPORTED, EVEN WHEN USED IN RECOMMENDED DOSES. THE POTENTIAL FOR NEPHROTOXICITY, PERMANENT BILATERAL AUDITORY OTOTOXICITY AND SOMETIMES VESTIBULAR TOXOCITY IS PRESENT IN PATIENTS WITH NORMAL RENAL FUNCTION WHEN TREATED WITH HIGHER DOSES OF NEOMYCIN AND/OR FOR LONGER PERIODS THAN RECOMMENDED. Serial, vestibular and audiometric tests, as well as tests of renal function, should be performed (especially in high-risk patients). THE RISK OF NEPHROTOXICITY AND OTOTOXICITY IS GREATER IN PATIENTS WITH IMPAIRED RENAL FUNCTION. Ototoxicity is often delayed in onset and patients developing cochlear damage will not have symptoms during therapy to warn them of developing eighth nerve destruction and total or partial deafness may occur long after neomycin has been discontinued.
Neuromuscular blockage and respiratory paralysis have been reported following the oral use of neomycin. The possibility of the occurrence of neuromuscular blockage and respiratory paralysis should be considered if neomycin is administered, especially to patients receiving anesthetics, neuromuscular blocking agents such as tubocurarine, succinylcholine, decamethonium, or in patients receiving massive transfusions of citrate anticoagulated blood. If blockage occurs, calcium salts may reverse these phenomena but mechanical respiratory assistance may be necessary.
Concurrent and/or sequential systemic, oral or topical use of other aminoglycosides, including paromomycin and other potentially nephrotoxic and/or neurotoxic drugs such as bacitracin, cisplatin, vancomycin, amphotericin B, polymyxin B, colistin and viomycin, should be avoided because the toxicity may be additive.
Other factors which increase the risk of toxicity are advanced age and dehydration.
The concurrent use of neomycin with potent diuretics such as ethacrynic acid or furosemide should be avoided, since certain diuretics by themselves may cause ototoxicity. In addition, when administered intravenously, diuretics may enhance neomycin toxicity by altering the antibiotic concentration in serum and tissue.

Special Precautions

Prescribing Neomycin Sulfate tablets in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection or a prophylactic indication is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria.

As with other antibiotics, use of oral neomycin may result in overgrowth of nonsusceptible organisms, particularly fungi. If this occurs, appropriate therapy should be instituted. Neomycin is quickly and almost totally absorbed from body surfaces (except the urinary bladder) after local irrigation and when applied topically in association with surgical procedures. Delayed-onset irreversible deafness, renal failure and death due to neuromuscular blockade (regardless of the status of renal function) have been reported following irrigation of both small and large surgical fields with minute quantities of neomycin.
Cross-allergenicity among aminoglycosides has been demonstrated.
Aminoglycosides should be used with caution in patients with muscular disorders such as myasthenia gravis or parkinsonism since these drugs may aggravate muscle weakness because of their potential curare-like effect on the neuromuscular junction.
Small amounts of orally administered neomycin are absorbed through intact intestinal mucosa.
There have been many reports in the literature of nephrotoxicity and/or ototoxicity with the oral use of neomycin. If renal insufficiency develops during oral therapy, consideration should be given to reducing the drug dosage or discontinuing therapy.
An oral neomycin dose of 12 grams per day produces malabsorption syndrome for a variety of substances, including fat, nitrogen, cholesterol, carotene, glucose, xylose, lactose, sodium, calcium, cyanocobalamin and iron.
Orally administered neomycin increases fecal bile acid excretion and reduces intestinal lactase activity.


Other Drug Interactions

Caution should be taken in concurrent or serial use of other neurotoxic and/or nephrtoxic drugs because of possible enhancement of the nephrotoxicity and/or ototoxicity of neomycin.

Caution should also be taken in concurrent or serial use of other aminoglycosides and polymyxins because they may enhance neomycin's nephrotoxicity and/or ototoxicity and potentiate Neomycin Sulfate's neuromuscular blocking effects.

Oral neomycin inhibits the gastrointestinal absorption of penicillin V, oral vitamin B-12, methotrexate and 5-fluorouracil. The gastrointestinal absorption of digoxin also appears to be inhibited. Therefore, digoxin serum levels should be monitored.

Oral Neomycin Sulfate may enhance the effect of coumarin in anticoagulants by decreasing vitamin K availability.

Other Interactions

Information Not Available

Dosage

To minimize the risk of toxicity, use the lowest possible dose and the shortest possible treatment period to control the condition. Treatment for periods longer than two weeks is not recommended.

Food(before/after)

Information Not Available

List of Contraindications

Neomycin and Pregnancy

Category D

Neomycin and Lactation

It is not known whether neomycin is excreted in human milk, but it has been shown to be excreted in cow milk following a single intramuscular injection. Other aminoglycosides have been shown to be excreted in human milk. Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions from the aminoglycosides in nursing infants, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.

Neomycin and Children

The safety and efficacy of oral Neomycin Sulfate in patients less than 18 years of age have not been established. If treatment of a patient less than 18 years of age is necessary, neomycin should be used with caution and the period of treatment should not exceed two weeks because of absorption from the gastrointestinal trac

Neomycin and Geriatic

Information Not Available

Neomycin and Other Contraindications

Neomycin Sulfate oral preparations are contraindicated in the presence of intestinal obstruction and in individuals with a history of hypersensitivity to the drug.
Patients with a history of hypersensitivity or serious toxic reaction to other aminoglycosides may have a cross-sensitivity to neomycin.
Neomycin Sulfate oral preparations are contraindicated in patients with inflammatory or ulcerative gastrointestinal disease because of the potential for enhanced gastrointestinal absorption of neomycin.

Storage

Information Not Available

Lab interference

Information Not Available

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