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The United States Food and Drug Administration approved Opdivo (Nivolumab) to treated metastatic renal cell carcinoma. The drug is indicated for patients who have received prior anti-angiogenic treatment. Opdivo target PD-1/PD-L1 pathway that is associated with certain immune and cancer cells.
Randomized, open-label clinical trial that involved 821 advanced renal cell carcinoma patients was conducted. The subjects were assigned to receive Opdivo or Everolimus. An average of 25 months improved survival rate was reported in Opdivo-treated patients, compared with 19.6 months in Afinitor-treated patients. In addition, partial or complete tumor shrinkage was observed in 21.5% Treatment benefits of Opdivo has lasted over 23 months compared to 3.9% in Afinitor group, lasting just 13.7 months.
Some of the reported common adverse events of Opdivo include dyspnea, cough, asthenia, anorexia, back pain, arthralgia, diarrhea and constipation. Other serious side effects include immune-mediated side effects in lungs, liver, colon and kidneys.