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Amantadine information from DrugsUpdate  

See Available Brands of Amantadine in India

Amantadine, an antiviral drug, is prescribed for the prevention and treatment of Influenza A infection. However, the drug should not be used to treat all seasonal flu cases to avoid drug-resistance. Amantadine is also indicated for management of Parkinson’s disease and iatrogenic extrapyramidal reactions.

Pharmacodynamics

As an antiviral drug, Amantadine inhibits the release of viral nucleic acids into the host by disruption of transmembrane domain functions of Influenza A virus M2 protein. Amantadine inhibits the formation of viral assembly during replication of the virus. The drug exerts direct and indirect action on dopamine neurons, and it is a non-competitive NMDA receptor agonist.

Pharmacokinetics

Oral administration of Amantadine is well absorbed. For doses up to 200 mg/day, the maximum plasma concentrations are directly dose-dependent. The drug is mainly excreted via urine and the metabolites of the drug including N-acetylated compound are detectable in urine. The mean distribution of Amantadine after intravenous administration was 3-8 L/Kg. 67% of the drug binds with plasma proteins. Urinary elimination of Amantadine could be increased in acidic urine. Acidifying drugs can increase the urinary elimination of Amantadine.

Amantadine Indications / Amantadine Uses

No information available

Amantadine Adverse Reactions / Amantadine Side Effects

Tremors, restless and uncontrolled muscular movement in neck, eyes and tongue, behavioural changes including aggression, depression, agitation and hallucinations, unexplained weight gain, hyperpyrexia, tachycardia and delirium. Other non-serious adverse events including dry mouth, dry nose, insomnia, GI problems such diarrhoea or constipation, headache and anorexia are also reported.

Precautions

Do not take Amantadine if you are diagnosed with congestive heart failure, renal disorders, glaucoma, hypotension, epileptic disorders, eczema, hepatic disorders or history of mental illness with or without drug/alcohol addiction. Consult your doctor if you notice symptoms of skin reactions or changes. Amantadine is linked with higher risk of melanoma. Perform regular skin examinations, if you are on Amantadine treatment.

Special Precautions

No information available

Other Drug Interactions

Amantadine can interact with Atropine, methscopolamine, dicyclomine hydrochloride, methscopolamine, quinine, quinidine,  diuretic drugs, propatheline, hyoscyamine, glycopyrrolate and phenothiazines.

Other Interactions

Avoid using nasal flu vaccine such as FluMist while you are taking Amantadine. Do not consume alcoholic beverages, coffee and even caffeinated drinks. These beverages could impair the Amantadine metabolism.

Dosage

Prophylaxis and Treatment of Uncomplicated Influenza A Virus Infections (Adults)

The recommended daily dosage of Amantadine is 200 mg in either single or divided doses. In case of intolerance, divided doses should be considered. In geriatric individuals, the daily dosage of Amantadine is 100 mg.
 
Children aged between 1 and 9 years of age
The recommended daily dosage for pediatric patients is 4.4 to 8.8 mg/kg/day. The dosage should not be exceeded more than 150 mg/day.
 
Children aged between 9 and 12 years of age
Daily recommended dosage for prophylaxis and treatment of Influenza A viral infections is 200 mg in divided doses. For prophylaxis, Amantadine should be given concomitantly with inactivated Influenza A virus vaccine. In virus exposed cases, the drug should be given for at least ten days. With 24 – 48 of onset of symptoms, Amantadine treatment should be started and continued for 24 - 48 hours after fading of flu symptoms.

Treatment of Parkinson’s disease – Adults:

The recommended daily dose for treatment of Parkinson’s disease is 100 mg, twice daily. The drug could elicit the action within 48 hours of administration. In patients with other serious illness, the initial dose should be 100 mg that can increase to 200 mg gradually. In certain cases, 400 mg of Amantadine can be administered under close medical monitoring.
 
Treatment of Iatrogenic Extrapyramidal Reactions (Adults)

The recommended dose of Amantadine is 100 mg, twice daily. In certain cases including drug unresponsive cases, the dosage of Amantadine should be increased up to 300 mg in divided doses.

Food(before/after)

No information available

List of Contraindications

Amantadine and Pregnancy

USFDA pregnancy category C. Amantadine may be or may not be harmful to an unborn baby. Consult your doctor if you are pregnant or planning to become pregnant during treatment.

Amantadine and Lactation

It is unclear whether the drug could pass through the breast milk to a breast feeding a baby. Consult your physician before taking Amantadine, if you are nursing mother.

Amantadine and Children

No information available

Amantadine and Geriatic

Higher risk of bleeding is associated with Amantadine treatment in elderly individuals.

Amantadine and Other Contraindications

No information available

Storage

Store at 20-25°C.

Lab interference

Store at 20-25°C.

Amantadine brands in India:

Amantrel Flublast Flublast Tab Parkitidin

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