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Cloxacillin information from DrugsUpdate  

See Available Brands of Cloxacillin in India

P - Caution when used during pregnancy
L - Caution when used during lactation

Cloxacillin is a semisynthetic antibiotic in the same class as penicillin. Cloxacillin was discovered and developed by Beecham. It is sold under a number of trade names, including Cloxapen and Orbenin.
Cloxacillin is used against staphylococci that produce beta-lactamase, due to its large R chain which doesn't allow the beta-lactamases to bind.
This drug has a weaker antibacterial activity than benzylpenicillin, and is devoid of serious toxicity except for allergic reactions.
It has been suggested, in one study, that increased use of cloxacillin may permit reduced use of vancomycin.

Pharmacodynamics

Pharmacokinetics

Cloxacillin is resistant to degradation by penicillinases. It is particularly useful against penicillinase-producing staphylococci. Highly active against S aureus, S pyogenes, S viridans and S pneumoniae.
Absorption: Incompletely absorbed from the GI tract with peak plasma concentrations after 1-2 hr (oral); may be reduced in the presence of food. Completely absorbed with peak plasma concentrations after 30 min (IM).
Distribution: Pleural and synovial fluids and bone (therapeutic concentrations), CSF (small amounts except when the meninges are inflamed; crosses the placenta and enters the breast milk. Protein-binding: 94%
Metabolism: Minimal metabolism.
Excretion: Via the urine by glomerular filtration and renal tubular secretion (35% of an oral dose); via the bile (Up to 10%). Not removed by dialysis; 0.5-1 hr (elimination half-life).

Cloxacillin Indications / Cloxacillin Uses

Information Not Available

Cloxacillin Adverse Reactions / Cloxacillin Side Effects

Neutropenia, agranulocytosis; GI upsets; rash. Sore mouth or tongue. Black hairy tongue.
Potentially Fatal: Neuromuscular hypersensitivity; pseudomembranous colitis; anaphylaxis.

Precautions

Information Not Available

Special Precautions

Renal impairment; pregnancy and lactation. Porphyria

Other Drug Interactions

Co-admin of probenecid or disulfiram may result in higher cloxacillin concentration. Chloramphenicol and tetracycline antagonise bactericidal effect of penicillins.
Potentially Fatal: Increased hypoprothrombinaemic effects of oral anticoagulants.

Other Interactions

Food Interactions: Delayed absorption in the presence of food

Dosage

Oral
Staphylococcal infections resistant to benzylpenicillin
Adult: 250-500 mg 4 times daily.
Child: 50-100 mg/kg in divided doses every 6 hr.
Incompatibility: Incompatible with aminoglycosides and a number of other antimicrobials.

Food(before/after)

Should be taken on an empty stomach. (Take on an empty stomach 1 hr before or 2 hr after meals.)

List of Contraindications

Cloxacillin and Pregnancy

Caution when used during pregnancy.
Category B: Either animal-reproduction studies have not demonstrated a foetal risk but there are no controlled studies in pregnant women or animal-reproduction studies have shown an adverse effect (other than a decrease in fertility) that was not confirmed in controlled studies in women in the 1st trimester (and there is no evidence of a risk in later trimesters).

Cloxacillin and Lactation

Caution when used during lactation

Cloxacillin and Children

Information Not Available

Cloxacillin and Geriatic

Information Not Available

Cloxacillin and Other Contraindications

Hypersensitivity to penicillins

Storage

Information Not Available

Lab interference

Information Not Available

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