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Zopiclone information from DrugsUpdate  

See Available Brands of Zopiclone in India

P - Contraindicated in pregnancy
L - Contraindicated in lactation
FI - Food *

Zopiclone, (brand name Imovane in Canada, and Zimovane in the UK) is a non-benzodiazepine hypnotic agent used in the treatment of insomnia. Zopiclone is known colloquially as a "Z-drug". Other Z-drugs include zaleplon (Sonata) and zolpidem (Ambien and AmbienCR) and were initially thought to be less addictive and/or habit-forming than benzodiazepines. However, this appraisal has shifted somewhat in the last few years as cases of addiction and habituation have been presented. It is recommended that zopiclone be taken on an "as needed" basis. Daily or continuous use of the drug is not usually advised. While it acts on the same benzodiazepine receptors as the benzodiazepine family of drugs it is not classed as a benzodiazepine (with which it shares a number of characteristics and effects) due to its differing molecular structure. Zopiclone is classed as a cyclopyrrolone derivative.

Pharmacodynamics

Pharmacokinetics

Zopiclone is a cyclopyrrolone derivative with hypnotic and sedative actions, anticonvulsant and muscle relaxant properties similar to benzodiazepines. It binds to a site in the GABA-A-benzodiazepine-chloride channel macromolecular-receptor complex which is different from that of the benzodiazepine binding site.

Absorption
Rapidly absorbed from the GI tract (oral).

Distribution
Widely distributed. Enters breast milk. Protein-binding: 45-80%.

Metabolism
Extensively hepatic; converted to less active N-oxide and inactive N-desmethylzopiclone. Undergoes decarboxylation to inactive metabolites.

Excretion

Urine, faeces (as unchanged drug and metabolites), lungs and saliva; 3.5-6.5 hours (elimination half-life).

Zopiclone Indications / Zopiclone Uses

Information Not Available

Zopiclone Adverse Reactions / Zopiclone Side Effects

Metallic or bitter aftertaste; irritability, confusion, depressed mood, aggressiveness, incoordination, anterograde amnesia, mild increase in LFTs, drowsiness, lightheadedness, nausea, vomiting, urticaria, rashes.

Precautions

Information Not Available

Special Precautions

Hepatic and renal insufficiency; elderly; psychiatric disorders; history of drug abuse. May impair ability to drive or operate machinery. Limit treatment duration to <4 weeks to minimise risk of dependence and tolerance. Avoid abrupt discontinuation of therapy.

Other Drug Interactions

Reduced hypnotic effect with phenytoin and carbamazepine. Increased drowsiness and incoordination with TCAs. Increased CNS depressant effect with alcohol and other CNS depressants. Decreased zopiclone concentration with rifampicin. Possible increase in zopiclone concentration with CYP3A4 inhibitors e.g. erythromycin, clarithromycin, ketoconazole, itraconazole, ritonavir.

Other Interactions

Food Interaction
Possible decrease in zopiclone levels with St John's Wort.

Dosage

Oral
Short-term management of insomnia
Adult: 7.5 mg at bedtime.
Elderly: Initially, 3.75 mg at bedtime.
Renal impairment: Initiate at 3.75 mg at bedtime.
Hepatic impairment: Mild to moderate: Initially 3.75 mg at bedtime. Severe: Contraindicated.

Food(before/after)

May be taken with or without food

List of Contraindications

Zopiclone and Pregnancy

Contraindicated in pregnancy

Zopiclone and Lactation

Contraindicated in lactation

Zopiclone and Children

Information Not Available

Zopiclone and Geriatic

Information Not Available

Zopiclone and Other Contraindications

Myasthenia gravis; respiratory failure; severe sleep apnoea syndrome; severe hepatic impairment; pregnancy, lactation.

Storage

Oral
Store in a dry place below 30°C. Protect from light.

Lab interference

Oral
Store in a dry place below 30°C. Protect from light.

Zopiclone brands in India:

Lyzop Ziclone Zolinox Zolium Zopicon Zopitran

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