Nitazoxanide information from DrugsUpdate
L - Caution when used during lactation
FI - Food *
Nitazoxanide, also known by the brand names Alinia and Annita (and by Daxon, Dexidex, Kidonax, Pacovanton and Paramix in Mexico, by Nitax, Zox, Nitazox and Toza in Bangladesh) is a synthetic nitrothiazolyl-salicylamide derivative and an antiprotozoal agent.
Nitazoxanide is a light yellow crystalline powder. It is poorly soluble in ethanol and practically insoluble in water.
Nitazoxanide is an antiprotozoal agent. Both nitazoxanide and its active metabolite (tizoxanide) interfere with the pyruvate:ferredoxin 2-oxidoreductase (PFOR) enzyme-dependent electron transfer reaction which is essential to anaerobic metabolism in susceptible organisms.
Absorbed from the GI tract (oral). Extent of absorption enhanced with food; peak plasma concentrations of tizoxanide and glucuronide metabolite after 1-4 hours.
Rapidly hydrolysed to tizoxanide (active desacetyl metabolite) which partially undergoes conjugation, primarily by glucuronidation.
Via faeces (2/3 of an oral dose); via urine (remaining dose).
Headache, abdominal pain, diarrhoea, nausea, vomiting, allergic reactions, anaemia, anorexia, increased appetite, increased creatinine and LFT, diaphoresis, dizziness, eye and urine discolouration, fever, flatulence, hypertension, infection, malaise, nausea, pruritus, rhinitis, enlarged salivary glands, tachycardia.
Renal and hepatic impairment. Pregnancy and lactation. Children <1 year.
May possibly interact with highly protein-bound drugs e.g. warfarin.
Increased AUC with food.
Adult: 500 mg every 12 hours for 3 days.
Child: 1-3 years: 100 mg every 12 hours; 4-11 years: 200 mg every 12 hours; ≥12 years: 500 mg every 12 hours. All doses to be taken for 3 days.
Should be taken with food.
List of Contraindications
Caution when used during pregnancy
Caution when used during lactation
Safety and efficacy not established for treatment of C. parvum in patients 12 years of age and older.
Safety and efficacy not established in children younger than 1 year of age.
Not for use in children 11 years of age or younger.
Use with caution because of the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and concomitant diseases or other drug therapy.
Suspension: Store at 15-30°C (59-86°F).
Store at room temperature.