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Miglitol information from DrugsUpdate  

See Available Brands of Miglitol in India

L - Contraindicated in lactation

Miglitol is an oral anti-diabetic drug that acts by inhibiting the ability of the patient to breakdown complex carbohydrates into glucose. It is primarily used in diabetes mellitus type 2 for establishing greater glycemic control by preventing the digestion of carbohydrates (such as disaccharides, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides) into monosaccharides which can be absorbed by the body.

Miglitol inhibits glycoside hydrolase enzymes called alpha-glucosidases. Since miglitol works by preventing digestion of carbohydrates, it lowers the degree of postprandial hyperglycemia. It must be taken at the start of main meals to have maximal effect. Its effect will depend on the amount of non-monosaccharide carbohydrates in a person's diet.

In contrast to acarbose (another alpha-glucosidase inhibitor), miglitol is systemically absorbed; however, it is not metabolized and is excreted by the kidneys.

Pharmacodynamics

Pharmacokinetics

Miglitol inhibits of alpha-glucosidase enzymes present in the intestine. It delays carbohydrate metabolism, decreases carbohydrate absorption, and thereby smoothens the postprandial increase in plasma glucose.

Absorption

Absorption from GI tract is saturable at high doses. Peak concentrations reached in 2-3 hours.

Distribution
<4% protein bound

Excretion
Eliminated in the urine as unchanged drug. Elimination half life is around 2 hours.

Miglitol Indications / Miglitol Uses

Information Not Available

Miglitol Adverse Reactions / Miglitol Side Effects

Abdominal pain, diarrhoea, flatulence, skin rash. To minimise GI effects, treatment may be initiated at 25 mg once daily and increased gradually to three times daily.

Precautions

Information Not Available

Special Precautions

Hypoglycaemia, renal impairment

Other Drug Interactions

Miglitol may significantly reduce the bioavailability of ranitidine and propranolol. Intestinal adsorbents (e.g, charcoal) and digestive enzyme preperations containing carbohydrate-splitting enzymes (e.g, amylase, pancreatin) may reduce the effect and should not be taken concomitantly.

Other Interactions

Information Not Available

Dosage

Oral
Type 2 diabetes mellitus
Adult: Initially, 25 mg tid, to be taken at the start (with the 1st bite) of each main meal. Increase if necessary after 4-8 weeks to usual maintenance dose 50 mg tid. Max dose 100 mg tid.

Food(before/after)

Information Not Available

List of Contraindications

Miglitol and Pregnancy

Category B

Miglitol and Lactation

Contraindicated in lactation

Miglitol and Children

Safety and efficacy not established

Miglitol and Geriatic

Information Not Available

Miglitol and Other Contraindications

Renal clearance <25 ml/min, GI motility disorders or the presence of inflammatory bowel disease, diabetic ketoacidosis, colonic ulceration, or partial intestinal obstruction. Lactation.

Storage

Information Not Available

Lab interference

Information Not Available

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