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Isoniazid information from DrugsUpdate  

See Available Brands of Isoniazid in India

P - Caution when used during pregnancy
L - Caution when used during lactation
FI - Food *
LI - Lab *

Isoniazid (Laniazid, Nydrazid), also known as isonicotinylhydrazine (INH), is an organic compound that is the first-line antituberculosis medication in prevention and treatment. It was first discovered in 1912, and later in 1951 it was found to be effective against tuberculosis. Isoniazid is never used on its own to treat active tuberculosis because resistance quickly develops.

The compound was first synthesised in the early 20th century, but its activity against tuberculosis was first reported in the early 1950's and three pharmaceutical companies attempted unsuccessfully to simultaneously patent the drug (most prominently, Roche, who launched their version, Rimifon, in 1952). With the introduction of isoniazid, a cure for tuberculosis was first considered reasonable.

Isoniazid is available in tablet, syrup, and injectable forms (given intramuscularly or intravenously). Isoniazid is available worldwide, is inexpensive and is generally well tolerated. It is manufactured from isonicotinic acid, which is produced from 4-methylpyridine.

Pharmacodynamics

Pharmacokinetics

Information Not Available

Isoniazid Indications / Isoniazid Uses

Information Not Available

Isoniazid Adverse Reactions / Isoniazid Side Effects

Peripheral neuritis, optic neuritis; psychotic reactions, convulsions, nausea, vomiting, fatigue, epigastric distress, visual disturbances, fever, rash, pyridoxine deficiency. Hepatotoxicity.

Precautions

Information Not Available

Special Precautions

Renal or hepatic impairment; convulsions disorders; history of psychosis; patients at risk of neuropathy or pyridoxine deficiency eg. diabetic, alcoholic, malnourished, uraemic, infected with HIV. Careful monitoring of hepatic function is necessary for black & hispanic women. Check hepatic function before & during treatment. Pregnancy & lactation.

Other Drug Interactions

May increase toxicity of carbamazepine, ethosuximide, phenytoin, diazepam & triazolam, chlorzoxazone, theophylline, chlorzoxazone, theophylline, clofazimine, cycloserine & warafin. May increase metabolism of enflurane resulting in nephrotoxic fluoride levels. Reduced efficacy & increased risk of peripheral neuropathies & hepatoxicity with alcohol. Reduced absorption with aluminium- containing antacids; give at least one hour before the antacid. Decreased serum levels with ketaconazole zalcitabine. Increased risk of hepatotoxicity with rifampicin and other drugs.                                                   

Other Interactions

Food Interaction

Dosage

Oral
Active Tuberculosis
Adult: 5 mg/kg dialy. Max: 30mg dialy. Alternatively, intermittent treatment is given at 10 mg/kg three times a week or 15 mg/kg twice daily weekly. Similar dose may also be given viaa IM admin.
Child: 10-15 mg/kg/day in 1-2 divided doses (max: 300mg/day)> Alternatively, intermittent therapy can be given at 20-40mg/kg (max: 90mg) 2-3 times weekly.

Latent Tuberculosis:
Adult 300 mg daily or 900 mg twice weekly for 6-9 months in patients who do not have HIV infection and 9 months in patients who have HIV infection. May extend to 12 months in interuptions in therapy occur. Similar doses can be given via IM admin. Child: 10 mg/kg/day as a single dose (max 300mg/day) or 20-30 mg/kg (max: 900 mg/dose) twice weekly for 9 months.

Food(before/after)

Information Not Available

List of Contraindications

Isoniazid and Pregnancy

Caution when used in pregnancy

Isoniazid and Lactation

Caution when used in lactation

Isoniazid and Children

Information Not Available

Isoniazid and Geriatic

Information Not Available

Isoniazid and Other Contraindications

Acute liver disease or history of hepatic damage during INH therapy; hypersensitivity.

Storage

Store at controlled room temperature 15°-30° C (59°-86° F).

Lab interference

Store at controlled room temperature 15°-30° C (59°-86° F).

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