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Glipizide information from DrugsUpdate  

See Available Brands of Glipizide in India

P - Contraindicated in pregnancy
L - Contraindicated in lactation

Glipizide is an oral medium-to-long acting anti-diabetic drug from the sulfonylurea class. It is classified as a second generation sulfonylurea, which means that it undergoes enterohepatic circulation. The structure on the R2 group is a much larger cyclo or aromatic group compared to the 1st generation sulfonylureas. This leads to a once a day dosing that is much less than the first generation, about 100 fold.

Pharmacodynamics

Pharmacokinetics

Glipizide stimulates insulin release from pancreatic β-cells and reduces gluconeogenesis in liver cells. It also increases insulin sensitivity at target sites.

Duration
24 Hours

Absorption
Readily absorbed from the GI tract (oral); peak plasma concentrations after 1-3 hours.

Distribution
Protein-binding: Extensive.

Metabolism
Hepatic.

Excretion
Urine (as inactive metabolites); faeces; 2-4 hours (elimination half-life).

Glipizide Indications / Glipizide Uses

Information Not Available

Glipizide Adverse Reactions / Glipizide Side Effects

GI upsets, diarrhoea, nausea; allergic skin reactions, leucopenia, thrombocytopenia, agranulocytosis, hyponatraemia; jaundice; haemolytic anaemia, pancytopenia.

Potentially Fatal: Hypoglycaemia in presence of renal or hepatic damage and alcohol.

Precautions

Information Not Available

Special Precautions

Hypoglycaemia, stress, elderly. Thyroid impairment; moderate hepatic or renal impairment. Monitor blood glucose concentration.

Other Drug Interactions

Decreased effect with β-blockers, cholestyramine, hydantoins, thiazide diuretics and urinary alkalinizers. Increased hypoglycaemic effects with H2 antagonists, anticoagulants, androgens, cimetidine, salicylates, TCAs, fluconazole, gemfibrozil, ketoconazole, NSAIDs, pioglitazone, sulfonamides, probenecid, MAOIs, methyldopa, digitalis glycosides and urinary acidifiers.

Other Interactions

Information Not Available

Dosage

Oral
Type 2 diabetes mellitus
Adult: Initially, 2.5-5 mg daily as a single dose, increased gradually at increments of 2.5-5 mg daily after several days. Doses >15 mg may be given in 2 divided doses. Max: 40 mg daily.

Food(before/after)

Extended-release
Should be taken with food. (Swallow whole, do not chew/ crush/ divide.)

Immediate-release
Should be taken on an empty stomach. (Take ½ hour before meals.)

List of Contraindications

Glipizide and Pregnancy

Contraindicated in pregnancy

Category C: Either studies in animals have revealed adverse effects on the foetus (teratogenic or embryocidal or other) and there are no controlled studies in women or studies in women and animals are not available. Drugs should be given only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the foetus.

Glipizide and Lactation

Contraindicated in lactation

Glipizide and Children

Safety and efficacy not established.

Glipizide and Geriatic

Elderly and debilitated patients are particularly susceptible to hypoglycemic action. Hypoglycemia may be difficult to recognize in elderly.

Glipizide and Other Contraindications

Hypersensitivity. Type 1 DM; ketoacidosis; severe renal or hepatic insufficiency. Pregnancy, lactation.

Storage

Information Not Available

Lab interference

Information Not Available

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